Write the first paragraph of your article here.

land fall effects in floridaEdit


On August 21, the National Hurricane Center posted a tropical storm watch from the Seven Mile Bridge to Vero Beach; the watch was later extended from Seven Mile Bridge to Florida City, and by later in the day the watch was replaced by tropical storm warnings and hurricane watches. Subsequent to the declaration of a tropical storm watch from Vero Beach to Titusville, a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch was issued for Lake Okeechobee. The advisories from Florida City to Vero Beach, as well as for Lake Okeechobee, were upgraded to a hurricane warning early on August 25. Several other tropical cyclone watches and warnings were issued for the state, including the Florida Keys. Later, advisories were posted for parts of the Florida Panhandle, after Katrina entered the Gulf of Mexico.[1]

[edit] ImpactEdit

Hurricane Katrina first made landfall near the border of Broward and Miami-Dade counties on August 25, with sustained winds of around 80 mph (135 km/h), or a Category 1 hurricane. The strongest wind report from a land station was 75 mph (120 km/h), which was adjusted from a reading atop a building in the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science on Virginia Key; the same station reported a wind gust of 94 mph (152 km/h). The Homestead General Airport registered an unofficial wind gust of 97 mph (157 km/h). Rainfall was heavy in places; it exceeded 14 inches (350 mm) in Homestead, Florida,[1] and was highest in Perrine, Florida where 16.43 inches was reported. A storm surge of 3 – 5 feet (1.5 m) was measured in parts of Monroe County. While moving southwestward across the state, the storm was asymmetric, with its winds and rain located more toward the south side of the storm.

Fourteen fatalities have been reported in Florida. Two of the deaths were from falling trees, one man crashed into a tree, one person died when his boat capsized, one when waves battered his boat, and one man was found floating in the water around Florida City. A family of five out over the southwestern coast of Florida was suspected dead, but found later alive and rescued by the Coast Guard. There were also two traffic fatalities related to Katrina. Severe damage was left in its wake,[2] and damage in Florida was estimated between $1 and $2 billion (with most of the damage coming from flooding and overturned trees). More than 1 million customers were left without electricity. Total rainfall from Katrina in the United States. Data for the New Orleans area are not available.Along the Florida Panhandle the storm surge was typically about five feet (1.5 m) and along the west-central Florida coast there was a minor surge of 1 – 2 feet (0.3 – 0.6 m). In Pensacola, Florida 56 mph (90 km/h) winds were recorded on August 29. The winds caused damage to some trees and structures and there was some minor flooding in the Panhandle. There were two indirect fatalities from Katrina in Walton County as a result of a traffic accident.[1] In the Florida Panhandle, 77,000 customers lost power.[3]


Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana at 6:10 AM local time on August 29, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 127 miles per hour (204 km/h), near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana and a 22-foot storm surge. The eye of the storm passed 27 miles east of downtown New Orleans at 8:30 AM. The primary areas that were affected were southeastern Louisiana, including the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, the parishes of St. Tammany (Slidell), Jefferson (Gretna), Terrebonne (Houma), Plaquemines (Buras), Lafourche (Thibodaux), and St. Bernard (Chalmette).

According to officials nearly one million people were temporarily without electricity in Louisiana for several weeks. On September 1, 2005, 800,000 homes were without electricity. Numerous roadways were flooded or damaged and many evacuations conducted by boat and helicopter.

Approximately 46,000 National Guard were dispatched to the area as part of the disaster relief effort. The United States Navy also announced that four amphibious ships would be sent from Norfolk, Virginia within a few days to assist the relief efforts. The US Coast Guard rescued 1,259 survivors off rooftops by Wednesday morning August 31, less than two days after landfall, and more than 1,000 the next day. In less than two weeks 12,535 flood victims were saved by helicopter. In all, the Coast Guard made 33,544 rescues by helicopter and boats. ""[2]

By July 1, 2006, when new population estimates were calculated by the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of the state of Louisiana declined by 219,563, or 4.87%.[3]

St. Tammany Parish

Hurricane Katrina made its final landfall in eastern St. Tammany Parish. The western eye wall passed directly over St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana as a Category 3 hurricane at about 9:45 AM CST, August 29, 2005.[6] The communities of Slidell, Louisiana, Avery Estates, Lakeshore Estates, Oak Harbor, Eden Isles and Northshore Beach were inundated by the storm surge that extended over six miles inland. The storm surge impacted all 57 miles of St. Tammany Parish’s coastline, including Lacombe, Mandeville and Madisonville.[7] The storm surge in the area of the Rigolets Pass is estimated 16 feet, not including wave action declining to 7 feet at Madisonville. The surge had a second peak in eastern St. Tammany as the westerly winds from the southern eye wall pushed the surge to the east, backing up at the bottleneck of the Rigolets Pass. The Twin Spans of I-10 between Slidell and New Orleans East were virtually destroyed, and much of I-10 in New Orleans East was under water. The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway and the Highway 11 bridge, connecting the north and south shores of Lake Pontchartrain, were open only to emergency traffic. Initial search and rescue operations were conducted south of Highway 190 from Lacombe east to the state line.[8] Fire District No. 1 and the St. Tammany Parish Sheriff’s office evacuated over 3,000 people from flooded homes and rescued about 300 people in imminent danger.[9] Radio communications among first responders functioned throughout the rescue period but the 9-1-1 system was not operational for ten days.[10] Utility services were not available anywhere in the parish. Generator power was available for hospitals and a special needs shelter. Hospitals were running at capacity on generator power. The hurricane force winds toppled trees and telephone poles parish-wide, blocking all transportation routes. Land debris clean up continued into 2007 with over 6.6 million cubic yards collected.[11] Debris cleaning in waterways continued at least through 2009. Hurricane Katrina damaged 48,792 housing units in St. Tammany Parish from flood waters, high winds, or both.[12]

[edit] Jefferson ParishEdit

The breach on the east side of the 17th Street Canal levee did not cause severe flooding within Jefferson Parish, but some lower lying areas did receive significant water damage, especially on the East Bank.

The Sheriff of Jefferson Parish reported that he expected his district to remain uninhabitable for at least one week and that residents should not return to the area. Incidents of looting have been reported throughout affected areas of Louisiana, most notably in New Orleans. Louisiana governor Kathleen Blanco ordered all roadways into the state closed.

By one week after the storm, residents were allowed to return to their homes to retrieve essentials, provided that they could present identification proving that they lived in the parish. They were only allowed in to retrieve essential items, and were then required to leave the parish for another month.

[edit] Terrebonne ParishEdit

In Terrebonne Parish, signs, trees, roofs and utility poles suffered the brunt of Hurricane Katrina's fury when the storm roared across Terrebonne and Lafourche. Most of Terrebonne Parish and Lafourche Parish were covered with water during the storm surge, yet Houma was spared to the extent that the Coast Guard used their airport for the initial rescue launch site. ""[2]

[edit] Plaquemines ParishEdit

Flooding in Venice, Louisiana.Hurricane Katrina made a direct landfall in the "lower" (southern/down river) portion of Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, the eye passed directly over the town of Empire, Louisiana. There was extensive flooding the majority of the Parish, and the southern part was temporarily "reclaimed" by the Mississippi River. All of the East Bank of the Parish was flooded, as was the downriver portion of the West Bank. Belle Chase mostly escaped with only moderate wind damage.

The Belle Chasse Tunnel was flooded as well.[13][dead link]

On August 29, the President of Plaquemines Parish, Benny Rousselle, issued a statement to all residents not to return to the parish until further notice. There were no public services available and all roads were closed and impassable. He requested that only employees in Drainage, Heavy Equipment, Public Right-of-Way Maintenance and Solid Waste Departments return to the parish if possible.

Areas gradually opened up in late 2005.

[edit] St. Bernard ParishEdit

St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, which lies to the East of New Orleans and thus was closer to the path of the storm and the more exposed to the storm surge from the Gulf of Mexico, was completely flooded via water surging into Lake Borgne. A large portion of the flooding was apparently the result of levee failures along the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal, a 76 miles (122 km) canal. The levees were sized to hold back up to 17.5 feet (5.3 m), of water: they held back the initial surge, but then they were breached in several areas by the 22 feet (6.7 m), surge.

The Parish's two shelters at Chalmette High School and St. Bernard High School suffered considerable damage with flooding. Chalmette High lost much of its roof, and St. Bernard High had many broken windows. There were estimates of 300-plus evacuees at both sites.

By August 29, about 150 people were sighted on rooftops in areas that were under approximately 8–10 feet or more of water. Among those on the roofs were WDSU reporter Heath Allen and a St. Bernard resident on a Government Complex rooftop. Residents reported that even oil platform service boats were utilized to rescue survivors.

Several tragic deaths were reported at St. Rita's Nursing Home in the parish, as 34 people died due to drowning. The owners of the nursing home were arrested and charged with negligent homicide for not having evacuated in advance of the storm.[14][dead link] The owners were subsequently found not guilty September 7, 2007 "".[15]

[edit] Washington ParishEdit

Washington Parish, Louisiana is located north of New Orleans. The parish received significant damage due to wind damage and local flooding. The Parish is home to many pine forests in which many of the pine trees snapped or were completely uprooted. The eye of Katrina could be seen from the eastern part of the parish, in Bogalusa as Bogalusa was only fifteen miles away from the center of the eye. Much of Bogalusa was without power for weeks. Many major roads were covered by trees and were not cleared for many days. Schools did n

Effects of Hurricane Katrina in MississippiEdit

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Jump to: navigation, searchDamage to Long Beach, Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina (click to enlarge){| cellspacing="2" class="infobox" style="text-align: left; margin: 0px 0px 1em 1em; float: right"

| align="middle" colspan="2"|Hurricane Katrina |- | align="middle"| |- | align="left" style="font-size: 85%"| |} Hurricane Katrina's winds and storm surge reached the Mississippi coastline on the afternoon of August 28, 2005,[1][2] beginning a two-day path of destruction through central Mississippi; by 10 a.m. CDT on August 29, 2005, the eye of Katrina began travelling up the entire state, only slowing from hurricane-force winds at Meridian near 7 p.m. and entering Tennessee as a tropical storm.[3] Many coastal towns of Mississippi (and Louisiana) had already been obliterated, in a single night.[4] Hurricane-force winds reached coastal Mississippi by 2 a.m.[1] and lasted over 17 hours, spawning 11 tornadoes (51 in other states[2]) and a 28-foot (9 m) storm surge[2] flooding 6-12 miles (10-19 km) inland. Many, unable to evacuate,[5] survived by climbing to attics or rooftops, or swimming to higher buildings and trees. Afterward, over 235 people died in Mississippi, and all counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas, 49 for full federal assistance.[6][7]

== ==

// More than one million people in Mississippi were affected, and almost 6 months later, the extent of the devastation in Mississippi was still described as "staggering" in USA Today on February 16, 2006:[8] "The Mississippi Gulf Coast has been devastated. The extent of the devastation in Mississippi is also staggering. Since Katrina hit, more than half a million people in Mississippi have applied for assistance from FEMA. In a state of just 2.9 million residents, that means more than one in six Mississippians have sought help. More than 97,000 people are still living in FEMA trailers and mobile homes. Another 5,000 to 6,000 are still waiting for FEMA trailers. Almost six months later, many neighborhoods are still piled high with storm debris"[9][8] (reported February 2006).

[edit] Scattered damageEdit

General: The effects of a hurricane can be scattered across a large area, because hurricanes are large, complex storms which spawn smaller thunderstorms, tornadoes, storm surges, and sea waves. Wind speeds east of the eyewall can be 40-50 mph (64-80 km/h) higher than winds west of the eye. Wind gusts can be scattered, just as boats or debris can ram one house but not another. One building can seem untouched, while others nearby are flattened; also trees can be partially weakened: tree limbs can fall months later, crashing onto a roof, automobile, fence, etc.

Specific: Because Hurricane Katrina became a massive storm,[3][10] over 450 miles (720 km) wide, not only the eyewall-path, and 28-foot (9 m) storm surge, but also the outer bands of the hurricane arms caused scattered damage hundreds of miles away from the center. Eleven (11) spawned tornadoes were recorded in Mississippi (51 elsewhere).[2] It is possible that scattered damage to northern Mississippi occurred, by spin-off storms, around the time Katrina made landfall in eastern Greater New Orleans (Louisiana's "boot toe") and then, again, near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, heading north-northeast into central Mississippi, at 10 a.m. on August 29.[3] Note that "landfall" occurred over towns submerged under 20 feet (6 m) of water. As buildings collapsed, water-tight appliances floated, sending refrigerators and dishwashers to ram other buildings and block streets.[10] Millions of homes and buildings were affected, along with ships, boats, and more than 40 offshore oil rigs.

[edit] Impact synopsisEdit

Figure KW10: Katrina Wind speed at 10 a.m. CDT, August 29, 2005: hurricane eye (central blue hub) near Waveland, Mississippi.The Gulf Coast of Mississippi suffered near total devastation[11][12][1] from Hurricane Katrina on August 28-29, with hurricane winds, 28-foot (9 m) storm surge, and 55-foot (17 m) sea waves[13] pushing casino barges, boats and debris into towns, and leaving 236 people dead, 67 missing, and an estimated $125 billion in damages.[14] Since Katrina made landfall below central Mississippi, 30 miles (48 km) east of New Orleans at 6:10 a.m.,[3] the storm's powerful, right, front quadrant covered coastal Mississippi and southern Alabama, increasing wind and flood damage. After making initial landfall in Louisiana, four hours later Katrina made another landfall north at the state line (near the mouth of the Pearl River)[3] and passed over submerged towns around Bay St. Louis as a Category 3 hurricane with winds over 120 mph (192 km/h) and 28-foot (9 m) surge.[13] Battered by wind, rain and storm surges, some beachfront neighborhoods were leveled entirely, with flooding 6-12 miles (10-19 km) inland, crossing Interstate-10 (I-10) in some places.[15]

Winds reached hurricane-force in Hancock and Harrison County[1] by 2 a.m.,[16] and winds intensified. As Katrina passed 30 miles (48 km) east of central New Orleans, with 57 mph (91 km/h) winds, by 10 a.m., landfall in Mississippi increased hurricane-force winds in an area of 600,000 Mississippi residents, covering several counties (see Figure KW10: Katrina Wind Speed map): Hancock, Harrison, Jackson County, Pearl River County, Stone, Walthall, Marion, Lamar County, Forrest County, and Perry County (see Map of Counties). Other counties to see a strong hurricane force impact of Katrina were Covington County, Jefferson Davis County, Simpson County, Smith County, Hinds County, Rankin County, and Scott County. Katrina maintained a high wind capacity of 80-85 mph in cities like Mendenhall, Magee, Jackson, Brandon, and Forest in Mississippi. Those cities contained alot of tree damage, roof and patio damage, power line damage, and lots of thrown debrees. In Jackson, streets were cleared off due to the intense strong winds and rains that carried throughout the entire day. During this 10 a.m. timeframe, hurricane-force winds continued over the barrier islands and Louisiana peninisula nearby, however, for the remainder of Louisiana, the winds were subsiding into gale-force winds after 10 a.m. when Katrina was becoming primarily a Mississippi hurricane.[17] Map of Mississippi Counties, noting flood/severe damage areas (yellow shaded counties).Several casinos, which were floated on barges to comply with Mississippi land-based gambling laws, were washed hundreds of yards inland by waves.[18] According to MSNBC, a 28-foot (9 m) storm surge came ashore wiping out 90% of the buildings along the Biloxi-Gulfport coastline. A number of streets and bridges were washed away, including the bridge sections of U.S. Highway 90. In particular, the roadway portion of the U.S. Highway 90 bridge between Bay St. Louis and Pass Christian was completely destroyed by the storm; only the support structure was left.

The three counties most affected by the storm were Hancock County, Harrison County, and Jackson County, although almost all counties had damage, and 47 counties were declared disaster areas. Mississippi Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) officials also recorded deaths in Hinds, Warren, and Leake counties. About 800,000 people through the state experienced power outages, which is almost a third of the population.[19]

The three coastal counties of Mississippi, populated by about 400,000 people (almost the population of central New Orleans), had been mostly evacuated, before Katrina flooded the 100-mile (160 km) region. Katrina's storm surge was the most extensive, as well as the highest, in the documented history of the United States; large portions of Hancock County, Harrison County,[1] and Jackson County were inundated by the storm surge, affecting most of the populated areas.[20] Surge covered almost the entire lower half of Hancock County, destroying the coastal communities of Clermont Harbor and Waveland, much of Bay St. Louis, and flowed up the Jourdan River, flooding Kiln. In Harrison County, Pass Christian was completely inundated, along with a narrow strip of land to the east along the coast, which includes the cities of Long Beach and Gulfport; the flooding was more extensive in communities such as D'Iberville, which borders Back Bay. Biloxi, on a peninsula between the Back Bay and the coast, was particularly hard hit, especially the low-lying Point Cadet area.

In Jackson County, storm surge flowed up the wide river estuary, with the combined surge and freshwater floods cutting the county in half. Over 90% of Pascagoula, the easternmost coastal city in Mississippi, was flooded from surge. Other Jackson County communities such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Shores were destroyed, and St. Martin was hard hit, along with Ocean Springs, Moss Point, Gautier, and Escatawpa.

Two destroyers that were under construction at Litton-Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula were damaged, as well as the Amphibious assault ship USS Makin Island.

Surveying the damage the day after Katrina's passing, Mississippi governor Haley Barbour called the scene indescribable, saying "I can only imagine that this is what Hiroshima looked like 60 years ago."[21] The mayor of Biloxi, A.J. Holloway, told the Biloxi Sun Herald, "This is our tsunami."[22] Relief and rebuilding efforts initially focused on restoring power and clearing communities of debris up to eight feet (2.4 m) in depth.[23]

Many historic buildings were destroyed in Mississippi, including the cottages and second-story porches around the Beauvoir mansion, home of Jefferson Davis. Hundreds of irreplaceable Civil War-era artifacts from the Jefferson Davis home and museum were either lost or destroyed.

The lower 3 floors of many high-rise casinos and hotels were gutted. (See details below).

Along with countless others affected by the hurricane, US Senator Trent Lott has lost his Pascagoula home, and the boyhood home of Green Bay Packers quarterback Brett Favre was also totally destroyed.

[edit] Psychological ImpactEdit

Both the Mississippi residents who survived the hurricanes as well as the disaster relief workers who supported them are at high risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD, a mental health disorder that can develop after exposure to an extreme situation such as warfare, a natural disaster or abuse[24].

[edit] Path of Hurricane KatrinaEdit

Storm pathAlthough Hurricane Katrina later travelled mainly through Mississippi, it began as a Category 1 hurricane on August 25, crossing the southern tip of Florida (raining 14 inches (360 mm) [36 cm][3]) into the Gulf, where it weakened, then strengthened into a massive Category 5 with 175 mph (280 km/h) sustained winds. Slowly turning north along the eastern coast of Louisiana, at 4 a.m. August 29, sustained winds were 132 mph (211 km/h), 90 miles (114 km) SSE of New Orleans.[3] As Katrina came ashore near Buras, LA at 6:10 CDT, with reported 125 mph (201 km/h) winds (Category 3),[3]it passed 40 miles (64 km) east[25] of New Orleans and headed to the Mississippi state line (mouth of Pearl River, 10 a.m. CDT),[26] with hurricane-force winds travelling up central Mississippi until weakening at Meridian,[27] and entering Tennessee as a tropical storm. Despite the hurricane force centered on Mississippi, neighboring areas were also affected: when New Orleans began slowly flooding with high east/north winds, a 28-foot (9 m) storm surge eastward from Bay St. Louis devastated coastal areas with 30-55 foot (17 m) sea waves,[28] flooding 12 miles (19 km) inland. The waves pushed barges, oil rigs, ships, and debris into submerged towns to flatten many coastal buildings across to Pascagoula with 20-foot (6 m) surge,[28] and into Alabama with 15-foot (5 m) surge[28] and 24-foot (7 m) waves battering beach houses inside Mobile Bay and tilting the battleship USS Alabama. (See extensive details below).

[edit] Mississippi evacuationEdit

By 4:30 a.m. CDT, on August 29, 2005, just hours before Hurricane Katrina landfall, many shelters in Mississippi were full to capacity, including many Red Cross shelters, the Jackson Coliseum (which allowed pets), and five special-needs shelters. The shelters had filled within 24 hours of opening.

Days earlier, on August 25, when Hurricane Katrina crossed the southern tip of Florida, government offices in Mississippi had already discussed emergency evacuation plans for days. On August 26, the Mississippi National Guard was activated, raising the level of concern, and on August 27, the state government activated its Emergency Operations Center, and local governments began issuing evacuation orders: the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency (MEMA)[29] advised not opening shelters in coastal counties. However, on August 28, the Red Cross also opened shelters in coastal counties, and by 7:00 p.m., 11 counties and eleven cities issued evacuation orders, a number which increased to 41 counties and 61 cities before the following morning, when Katrina came ashore. Moreover, 57 emergency shelters were established on coastal communities, with 31 additional shelters available to open if needed....[30]

Since the evacuation was not total, many people survived the 30-foot (9 m) storm tide by climbing into the second-floor attic, or knocking out walls and ceiling boards to climb onto the roof or nearby trees.[31] Tree trunks remained standing,[32] even near the beaches, where many houses were leveled. Other people had swum to taller buildings or trees.[33] Over 100 people were rescued from roof tops and trees in Mississippi.

Although the population of the three (3) coastal counties had been nearly 400,000, and the storm tide was 20-30 feet (9 m) with coastal winds 75-120 mph (120-192 km/h), fewer than 350 people died in Mississippi during Hurricane Katrina.

[edit] Federal buildings/projectsEdit

Because of federal intent to rebuild or recover projects of the US Federal Government, the damage assessment to federal buildings in Mississippi covers actual costs: the amount needed to resume operations at market costs. The following federal projects are described in terms of damage, along with the cost to resume operations:[7]

  • $1.987 billion: as requested by President George W. Bush, for Navy Shipbuilding and Conversion; these funds will assist Northrop Grumman to "replace destroyed or damaged equipment, prepare and recover naval vessels under contract; and provide for cost adjustments." Ships were damaged in Pascagoula.
  • (unknown): as increased funding for USDA housing programs which provide subsidized loans and housing repair funding.
  • $75 million: in wildlife habitat restoration, for the Corps of Engineers to enhance estuarine habitats in Mississippi: following the Governor’s proposal regarding oyster reef and coastal marsh restoration. The Mississippi Department of Marine Resources will assist the Corps as these projects develop.
  • $75 million: for the Corps of Engineers on various coastal projects: to accelerate completion of authorized projects along the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
  • $1.1 billion: to repair vital federal facilities in Mississippi, including:
$292.5 million for the repair and renovation of the VA hospital in Biloxi.
$45 million for the Armed Forces Retirement Home in Gulfport.
$277.2 million for the United States Navy to help rebuild the Seabee base in Gulfport, and the Stennis Space Center.
$43.4 million to help rebuild Keesler Air Force Base.
$45 million for the Keesler Medical Center.
$82.8 million for new Navy housing in the Gulfport/Stennis region.
$324.8 million for housing at Keesler Air Force Base.
$48.9 million for Navy housing at the Naval Air Station Meridian and at the Seabee base in Gulfport.

The cost amounts were decided for work continuing in 2006. Note that repairs include modern renovation, since it is not feasible to assess damage in terms of restoring federal buildings to the year they were built. However, the costs provide a condensed measure of the construction damage, without counting the millions of lost roof tiles, thousands of broken windows, etc.

[edit] Hancock CountyEdit

Coastal counties of Mississippi (click to enlarge)Hancock County was the scene of the final landfall of the eye of Hurricane Katrina, causing total devastation in Waveland, Bay St. Louis, Pearlington, and Clermont Harbor, as well as southern Diamondhead. The bridge between Bay St. Louis and Pass Christian was destroyed.

Katrina's 28-foot (9-m) storm surge, and 55-foot (17 m) sea waves,[13] practically obliterated Waveland, Mississippi, and state officials said that it took a harder hit from the wind and water than any other town along the coast. Katrina came ashore during the high tide of 8:01AM,[34] raising the storm tide by 2 feet (0.61 m), to over 30 feet (9 m). The storm dragged away almost every structure within one half mile of the beach, leaving driveways and walkways that went to nowhere.[33] The death toll was estimated at about 50.

In Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, a foot (30 cm) of water swamped the Emergency Operations Center at the Hancock County courthouse, which sits 30 feet (9 m) above sea level.[35] Katrina also destroyed the first floor and dormitories of Saint Stanislaus All Boys High School.

The destruction brought forth by Katrina also caused about one-quarter of the labor force to lose their jobs, with the unemployment rate reaching as high as 24.3%[36]

[edit] Harrison CountyEdit

Figure BB: Damage to the Biloxi-Ocean Springs bridge.Damage to the riverboat Palace Casino located in Biloxi, Mississippi (MS), resulting from Hurricane Katrina.Harrison County, Mississippi was hit particularly hard by the hurricane and the storm surge. Its two largest coastal cities, Biloxi and Gulfport, suffered severe damages and a number of casualties. By September 1, 126 people were already confirmed dead.[37] Smaller coastal towns were also severely damaged. Much of Long Beach and most of Pass Christian was leveled. Nearby Gulfshore Baptist Assembly, a camp owned and operated by the Mississippi Baptist Convention, has been permanently closed, and recommendations have been made to build a new facility elsewhere.[38]

In the tourist town of Biloxi, widespread damage was reported as several of the city's attractions were destroyed. The lower 3 floors of many high-rise casino-hotels were gutted, as in the former Grand Casino of Gulfport, or the Imperial Palace (IP Hotel and Casino) or Beau Rivage in Biloxi.[39] Many restaurants were destroyed and several casino barges had been washed out of the water and onto land. Residents that survived Hurricane Camille stated that Katrina was "much worse," with a storm surge reportedly reaching further inland than the previous catastrophic storm. Katrina's wind estimates were lighter than Camille's, and the central air pressure was slightly higher, but Camille was also a much smaller storm so the greater impact of the storm surge may be due to the size. Keesler Air Force Base, also located in Biloxi, reported extensive damage to its facilities. Gulfport authorities reported to news station CNN that up to ten feet of water covered downtown streets. The Biloxi-Ocean Springs Bridge was also totally destroyed (see Figure BB), and US 90 had heavy debris and severe damage to the roadbed.

Thirty of the confirmed deaths in Harrison County were at the St. Charles apartment complex, said Kelly Jakubic with the county's Emergency Operations Center.[40] The apartment complex was reported, by local news sources, to have collapsed with dozens of residents inside. FOX News also reported deaths at the Quiet Water Beach apartments.[22]

Rebuilding in Harrison County proceeded at different paces in different towns. The town of Biloxi was greatly helped by the resurgence of the casino industry, while smaller towns such as Pass Christian did not have an economic base with which to start the reconstruction effort. By January 2007, almost a year and a half after the Hurricane, Pass Christian had still not yet begun rebuilding its city buildings, and volunteer labor was still involved in rebuilding private homes in the town.[41].

The ECHL Mississippi Sea Wolves, which play in Biloxi, was forced to suspend operations for two years because of the aftermath of the hurricane causing damage to the Mississippi Coast Coliseum. The team resumed play in 2007.

[edit] Jackson CountyEdit

Surge damage in Pascagoula, Mississippi.In Jackson County, the storm surge flowed up the wide river estuary, with the combined surge and freshwater floods cutting the county in half. Over 90% of Pascagoula, the easternmost coastal city in Mississippi, and 75 miles (121 km) east of Katrina's landfall, was flooded from surge. Other Jackson County communities such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Shores were destroyed, and St. Martin was hard hit; Ocean Springs, Moss Point, Gautier, and Escatawpa also suffered major surge damage.

United States Navy officials announced that two Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers that were under construction at Litton-Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula had been damaged by the storm, as well as the Amphibious assault ship USS Makin Island.

[edit] County totalsEdit

Katrina disaster area: 49 counties for full Federal assistance (yellow shading).After Hurricane Katrina, all counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas, with 49 counties eligible for full Federal assistance. The following Mississippi counties (alphabetical order) reported deaths, tornadoes, or damage:[citation needed]

  • Adams County: reported 2 deaths.
  • Forrest County: reported 7 deaths.
  • Harrison County: reported 126 deaths.
  • Hancock County: reported 51 deaths.
  • Hinds County: reported 1 death.
  • Jackson County: reported 12 deaths, and 2 tornadoes.
  • Jasper County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Jones County: reported 12 deaths.
  • Kemper County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Lamar County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Lauderdale County: reported 2 deaths, and 1 tornado.
  • Leake County: reported 1 death, and 3 tornadoes.
  • Lowndes County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Neshoba County: reported 2 tornadoes.
  • Oktibbeha County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Pearl River County: reported 17 deaths.
  • Simpson County: reported 1 death.
  • Scott County: reported 1 tornado.
  • Stone County: reported 1 death.
  • Warren County: reported 1 death.
  • Winston County: reported 1 tornado.

The names of the 49 counties in Mississippi, declared disaster areas for full Federal assistance, are:[6][42] Adams, Amite, Attala, Claiborne, Choctaw, Clarke, Copiah, Covington, Franklin, Forrest, George, Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Hinds, Holmes, Humphreys, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Kemper, Lamar, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Leake, Lincoln, Lowndes, Madison, Marion, Neshoba, Newton, Noxubee, Oktibbeha, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Rankin, Scott, Simpson, Smith, Stone, Walthall, Warren, Wayne, Wilkinson, Winston and Yazoo.[42] Taxpayers were eligible for automatic relief in the 49 Mississippi counties designated for individual assistance.[42]

Other counties were affected as well.

[edit] In the regionEdit

Since Hurricane Katrina traveled up the entire state, Mississippi lies in the center of the disaster areas for the region. Outside the area of high winds and storm surge, other areas were affected by spin-off tornadoes and rainfall flooding. The map below shows the declared disaster areas in the region. Disaster areas map: dark orange indicates full assistance, light yellow-orange for Public assistance, or green for Public assistance category A/B.The south tip of Florida includes damage when Hurricane Katrina originated in the Caribbean Sea, dumping over 14 inches (360 mm) of rain in the area.

[edit] Long-term impactEdit

Rebuilding of towns took years, and some areas were not restored. The bay bridges were rebuilt taller and stronger, as had been done around Pensacola in the years following Hurricane Ivan (2004). Because all 3 Emergency Command Centers in the Mississippi coastal counties had been flooded over 30 feet (9 m) above sea level,[3] the rules for command-center elevation were changed to relocate to even higher ground. The casino-gambling regulations were changed to allow casinos to be built on land in taller buildings, no longer forcing the use of massive floating casino barges near a city, which could again become battering rams along 2nd and 3rd-story levels of nearby hotels. Celebrities who had previously visited New Orleans came to understand the massive devastation that occurred along the Gulf Coast cities. The US Army Corps of Engineers developed plans to rebuilt the protective barrier islands that had been washed out to sea along the coastal areas. Detailed reports were written describing how people had survived by swimming to taller buildings or trees, and noting that those too old or unable to swim did not survive. Many residents moved away and never returned. Medical studies attempted to estimate the indirect deaths caused by people losing their homes or local medical support.ot open until October. As gasoline was in short supply even for emergency workers, the parish banned gas to the public for several days, arousing ire of many locals

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